What is Disavow and How to Create and Submit a Disavow File

What is Disavow and How to Create and Submit a Disavow File


In the vast digital realm, every website aspires to rank prominently on search engines. Central to this aspiration is the strategy of Search Engine Optimization (SEO). Within the multifaceted world of SEO, backlinks, or the external links that point to a website, emerge as a pivotal force. They serve not just as bridges guiding users from one site to another, but also as strong indicators of a website's credibility and authority.

However, like all forces, backlinks have a duality. While quality backlinks can elevate a website's reputation and ranking, toxic or spammy links can have the exact opposite effect, often leading to penalization by search engines. It's akin to a recommendation: a commendation from a respected individual boosts your image, but a nod from someone with a dubious reputation can mar it.

Enter the concept of "disavowing" links. At its core, to disavow is to deny responsibility or support for something. In the SEO context, it means formally telling search engines to disregard certain backlinks, ensuring they don't negatively impact your site's SEO. This preventive measure acts as a shield for websites, ensuring that harmful backlinks don't tarnish their digital reputation.

In this article, we'll delve deep into the nuances of disavowing links, why it's crucial, and the meticulous process of creating and submitting a disavow file. Join us on this journey to ensure your website stands tall, unburdened by the weight of undesirable backlinks.

Understanding the Concept of 'Disavow'

In the ever-evolving landscape of SEO, the term 'disavow' holds a critical, albeit defensive, position. To 'disavow,' in its simplest form, means to reject or deny the validity of something. In the realm of digital marketing, it specifically refers to the act of informing search engines, notably Google, to ignore certain backlinks that point to your website.

The internet, vast and sprawling, is not without its share of dubious spaces. Websites might, for various reasons, receive links from spammy, low-quality, or malicious sites. Sometimes, these links are a result of past black-hat SEO tactics; other times, they might be a part of negative SEO attacks from competitors or just random occurrences.

These undesirable backlinks can, over time, signal to search engines that your website might not be trustworthy or authoritative, especially if the volume of such links increases rapidly. As search engines, like Google, prioritize user experience, they might perceive such links as indicators that your website is associated with low-quality content or platforms. As a result, there could be a dip in rankings, a decrease in organic traffic, or, in extreme cases, a manual penalty.

To prevent or rectify these repercussions, website owners turn to the disavow tool.

What Constitutes a Toxic or Spammy Backlink?

Toxic or spammy backlinks typically originate from sites that are not reputable or authoritative.

These might include:

  • Websites are set up purely for link-building or spamming purposes.
  • Sites with a history of distributing malware or viruses.
  • Sites with a high volume of outbound links to unrelated domains.
  • Websites with very low domain authority or trust scores.
  • Sites with content that is scraped, duplicated, or of low quality.

Detrimental Effects on SEO and Online Reputation:

  • Decreased Organic Rankings: Search engines might perceive a site with many toxic backlinks as one of low quality or trustworthiness.
  • Manual Penalties: In extreme cases, search engines might impose a manual penalty, removing the website from its search results altogether.
  • Tarnished Online Reputation: Associating with spammy sites can damage a website's reputation among its audience.

Case Studies:

  • Website A: A budding e-commerce platform once noticed a sudden drop in organic traffic. On investigating, they found a surge of backlinks from multiple unrelated spammy websites. This negative SEO attack aimed to reduce its Google ranking. Only after using the disavow tool and enhancing their security did their organic traffic return to normal.
  • Website B: An influential blogger, in their early days, had employed black-hat SEO techniques for quicker results. While it gave a short-term boost, the long-term effect was a manual penalty from Google. The road to recovery was long, involving disavowing each toxic link and revisiting their SEO strategies.

Google's Disavow Tool: A Lifeline for Webmasters

In the realm of SEO, where backlinks play a monumental role in determining a website's authority and ranking, not all links are created equal. While beneficial backlinks can propel a site's ranking, toxic ones can be a detriment. Recognizing the challenges faced by webmasters, Google introduced the Disavow Tool.

A Glimpse at Google's Disavow Tool:

This tool, accessible via Google Search Console, offers website owners the opportunity to communicate directly with the search engine about which backlinks they'd prefer to be ignored. It's like telling Google, "Hey, I don't vouch for these specific links. Please exclude them when assessing my website."

With the Disavow Tool, webmasters can:

  • Recover from penalties: Whether algorithmic or manual, penalties arising from poor backlink profiles can be addressed.
  • Prevent negative SEO: By regularly monitoring and disavowing, one can proactively defend against deliberate negative SEO attacks.
  • Maintain site integrity: Ensure that the site's backlink profile remains clean and beneficial for rankings.

Step-by-Step Guide to Creating a Disavow File

Before you can disavow links, you need to spot the potentially harmful ones. Here's how:

  • Manual Audit: Regularly review your site's backlink profile via tools like Google Search Console.
  • Third-Party Tools: Utilize platforms such as SEMrush, Ahrefs, or Moz to flag potentially toxic backlinks based on various metrics.

2. Compiling Your List:

Once identified, you'll need to create a list of these URLs and domains.

  • URLs vs. Domains: Decide if you're disavowing an entire domain or specific URLs. Use "domain:example.com" for entire domains.
  • Consolidate: Maintain a clean list, ensuring one URL or domain per line.

3. Writing the Disavow File:

Creating a disavow file requires precision, as it directly communicates with Google about which links to ignore.

  • File Format: Your disavow file should be a plain text file (.txt). Ensure it's encoded in UTF-8 or 7-bit ASCII.
  • Comments: You can include comments for your reference using the "#" symbol. For instance, "# Disavowing due to negative SEO attack on date."
  • Syntax: Be cautious. "domain:example.com" tells Google to disavow links from the entire domain, whereas specifying a URL will disavow only that particular link.

Tips and Tricks:

  • Proceed with Caution: Only disavow links if you're certain they're harmful. Indiscriminate disavowing can hurt more than help.
  • Regular Reviews: SEO is dynamic. What's harmful today might not be tomorrow. Periodically review your disavow file.
  • Backup: Always keep a backup of your disavow file. This helps track changes and offers a safety net in case of mistakes.

In the hands of a diligent webmaster, the disavow tool transforms from a mere feature to a formidable shield, defending a site's reputation and standing in the ever-competitive world of search engines.

How to Submit Your Disavow File to Google

After meticulously creating your disavow file, the next step is informing Google about these unwanted links. This is done through the Google Search Console (GSC), which acts as the bridge between webmasters and Google's search algorithm.

Accessing Google Search Console (GSC):

  • Sign In: Access the Google Search Console and sign in using your website's associated Google account.
  • Select Property: On the main dashboard, choose the website (property) for which you've prepared the disavow file.
  • In GSC, the disavow tool isn't prominently displayed (since it's a tool that should be used cautiously). Access it directly via Google's Disavow Links Tool.

Uploading and Submitting Your Disavow File:

  • Click on "Disavow Links."
  • You'll receive a warning reminding you of the potential risks associated with using the tool. Read it carefully, then proceed.
  • Click on the "Choose File" button and upload your .txt disavow file.
  • Click "Submit."

Post-Submission Expectations and Waiting Period:

After successfully submitting your disavow file, you'll receive a confirmation from Google. The actual processing, however, can take several weeks. Google must recrawl the disavowed links and adjust your site's ranking accordingly. It's essential to monitor your website's performance and backlink profile during this period to notice any changes or improvements.

In the quest to improve website rankings and maintain a clean backlink profile, it's possible to stumble. Here are some pitfalls you should steer clear of:

  • Accidentally Disavowing Beneficial Links: The line between a 'good' and 'bad' backlink can sometimes be blurred. Ensure you're not disavowing links that might be driving valuable traffic or aiding your site's SEO.
  • Incorrect File Format or Syntax Errors: Even minor mistakes, like using a .doc instead of .txt or adding extra spaces, can render your disavow file ineffective. Double-check your file for syntax accuracy and formatting.
  • Overusing the Disavow Tool: While it's a powerful tool, it's not a magic wand. Not all ranking drops are due to toxic backlinks. Indiscriminate or frequent use of the disavow tool without proper analysis can do more harm than good.

Monitoring and Maintenance

In the vast and ever-evolving realm of SEO, consistent monitoring and proactive maintenance play a pivotal role in a website's success. Just like how a garden requires periodic weeding, your website's backlink profile needs regular attention.

Your backlink profile isn't static; it's a living entity that grows and changes as your website evolves and as other sites link to you. Regularly reviewing this profile ensures that:

  • You can promptly detect and manage negative SEO attacks.
  • Monitor the effectiveness of your link-building campaigns.
  • Maintain the quality and reputation of your site's backlink profile.

When and How Often to Update Your Disavow File:

There isn't a one-size-fits-all answer. However, a general recommendation would be:

  • After any significant link-building campaign.
  • If there's a noticeable drop in rankings or traffic without any discernible reason.
  • At least every 3-4 months for routine maintenance.

Several tools can aid in your vigilance:

  • Google Search Console: A direct line to Google, it provides detailed insights into your backlinks.
  • SEMrush, Ahrefs, Moz: These third-party tools offer extensive backlink analysis features, highlighting potentially toxic links.
  • Alerts: Set up notifications to be informed of new backlinks, especially from potentially harmful sources.

Historical Context of the Disavow Tool

To fully grasp the importance of the disavow tool, it's vital to understand the circumstances surrounding its inception.

A Brief History of the Tool's Introduction by Google:

Google introduced the Disavow Tool in October 2012. This was a period when the search engine giant was making significant strides in refining its algorithm to prioritize user experience and quality content.

The State of SEO and Backlinking Practices Leading to Its Necessity:

In the late 2000s and early 2010s, black-hat SEO practices were rampant. One of these involved building a vast number of low-quality, spammy backlinks to artificially inflate a site's authority and rankings. Google's Penguin update in April 2012 targeted these manipulative link-building tactics. Post-Penguin, many websites faced penalties due to their poor backlink profiles, often accrued unknowingly or through past practices that were once deemed acceptable.

While Penguin was a necessary step towards a cleaner and more user-centric web, it posed a challenge for many webmasters. They needed a way to rectify past mistakes and disassociate from harmful backlinks. Thus, the disavow tool was born – a way for site owners to communicate with Google about links they didn't want to be counted.

In the vast landscape of SEO, there are multiple avenues to address unwanted backlinks. Two predominant methods are manual link removal and using the disavow tool. Each approach has its unique set of benefits and challenges.

  • Identification: Firstly, use tools like Ahrefs, SEMrush, or Google Search Console to identify potentially harmful or unwanted links.
  • Contacting the Site Owners: Once identified, locate the contact details of the website owner or webmaster. This can often be found on a website's "Contact Us" page or WHOIS databases.
  • Draft a Polite Request: In your email or message, explain your concern about the specific link and request its removal.

When to Choose Manual Removal Over Disavowing (and Vice Versa):

  • Manual Removal: Opt for this when the number of harmful links is relatively low and they come from reputable or responsive domains.
  • Disavowing: Best suited when faced with a large number of bad links, especially if they originate from spammy websites unlikely to respond to removal requests.

Pros and Cons of Each Approach:

  • Manual Removal:
  • Pros: Complete removal of the harmful link, potentially better in Google's eyes as it shows proactive effort.
  • Cons: Time-consuming, no guarantee of response, the potential for negative interactions.
  • Disavowing:
  • Pros: Faster, can handle large volumes of bad links, no reliance on third-party responsiveness.
  • Cons: Google's algorithm decides the final impact, and potential for mistakes (e.g., accidentally disavowing good links).

In the world of backlinks, not all are created equal. Recognizing the hallmarks of quality backlinks and the warning signs of harmful ones is pivotal for effective SEO management.

  • Relevance: The linking website's topic aligns with your site's content.
  • Authority: The linking site is reputable, trustworthy, and has a good standing in its niche.
  • Natural Anchor Text: The anchor text (clickable text in a hyperlink) is not overly optimized and appears natural.
  • Diverse Source: Backlinks come from various domains, showing a broad range of sites find your content valuable.
  • Spammy Websites: The backlink originates from a site filled with unrelated or low-quality content.
  • Paid Links: Backlinks that you've paid for, not earned organically.
  • Over-Optimized Anchor Text: An unnaturally high number of links with the same anchor text can appear manipulative.
  • Irrelevant Links: Links from entirely unrelated websites or industries.

Various tools provide metrics that can help gauge the quality and potential value of a backlink:

  • Domain Authority (DA) by Moz: Predicts how well a website will rank. Higher DA often indicates a more influential website.
  • Trust Flow by Majestic: Measures the quality of links pointing to a site. A higher Trust Flow indicates more trustworthy and quality links.
  • Citation Flow by Majestic: Reflects the number of citations or links pointing to a website.
  • Referring Domains & Anchor Text Distribution in Ahrefs: Provides a snapshot of the diversity and health of a site's backlink profile.

Disavow Tool Across Search Engines: Bing & Others

While Google dominates much of the search engine conversation, other search engines like Bing also play an integral role in the online ecosystem. As such, they too have provisions for webmasters to address harmful backlinks.

Disavow Tools Beyond Google:

  • Bing: As the second-largest search engine, Bing's Webmaster Tools also includes a Disavow Links feature. Similar to Google, it allows webmasters to submit a list of URLs or domains they wish to disassociate from.

Differences in Approach and Effectiveness:

  • Process Similarities: Both Google and Bing require webmasters to submit a file containing the links they want to disavow.
  • Differences: While the core functionality is similar, Bing might interpret or act upon the disavowed links differently than Google. Furthermore, the impact of disavowing on Bing's rankings might vary from Google due to differences in their respective algorithms.

As with many online practices, there's an ethical dimension to link-building and the act of disavowing links. Here we delve into the morality of these practices and the potential consequences.

  • Paid Links: Buying links can be seen as a manipulative practice, bypassing the organic process of earning backlinks based on content quality.
  • Link Farms: Engaging in or benefiting from networks solely created to artificially boost site authority is ethically dubious and is penalized by search engines.
  • Guest Posting for Links: While guest posting can be legitimate, doing so purely for links, especially on low-quality sites, can be perceived as manipulative.

Negative SEO Attacks:

One of the darker aspects of SEO is the concept of 'Negative SEO attacks'. This involves competitors deliberately building spammy, low-quality backlinks to a site with the intent to harm its search engine rankings. Such practices are:

  • Malicious: The aim is to damage a competitor's standing, rather than elevate one's own.
  • Hard to Combat: While tools like 'disavow' help, the initial damage (both in terms of rankings and the time required to rectify) can be significant.

The act of disavowing in such scenarios becomes a defensive strategy, a necessity rather than an option.

Case Study Analysis

In the dynamic world of SEO, real-world examples can provide invaluable insights into the practical applications and outcomes of using tools like 'disavow'.

Businesses Successfully Using the Disavow Tool:

  • Company A: After noticing a sudden drop in rankings, Company A identified a barrage of spammy backlinks pointing to their site. Using the disavow tool, they successfully distanced themselves from these harmful links, resulting in the recovery of their previous SERP positions within a few months.
  • Company B: Upon acquiring an older domain with a questionable backlink profile, Company B proactively disavowed dubious links, ensuring a smooth transition and maintaining the site's SEO health during the changeover.

Lessons from Setbacks:

  • Company X: In their eagerness to clean their backlink profile, Company X hastily disavowed several links, including some valuable ones. This overzealous action resulted in a drop in rankings. The lesson? Always review your disavow file carefully, ensuring only truly toxic links are included.
  • Company Y: Misinterpreting the purpose of the tool, Company Y used it as a preventive measure, rather than a corrective one, leading to unnecessary effort without any tangible benefits.

As the digital landscape evolves, so too will the practices and tools associated with SEO.

  • Increasing Sophistication: As negative SEO attacks become more advanced, the tools to combat them, like disavow, will need to evolve in tandem.
  • Broader Acceptance: More search engines may introduce their versions of the disavow tool as the importance of a clean backlink profile becomes universally recognized.

AI and Machine Learning's Role:

  • Automated Identification: In the future, AI algorithms might automatically identify and suggest potentially harmful links for disavowal, reducing manual analysis.
  • Predictive Analysis: Machine learning could predict the potential harm of a link even before it affects the site's ranking, allowing for preemptive disavowal.
  • Integration with Other Tools: AI could integrate the disavow tool with other SEO tools, providing a holistic solution for webmasters— from identifying harmful links to taking corrective action.

User Testimonials and Experiences

Every tool's effectiveness can often be best gauged by the experiences of those who've used it. Disavow tool is no exception.

Feedback from Webmasters:

  • John, a blog owner: "I was initially skeptical about using the disavow tool, but after a spate of negative SEO, it proved invaluable. My site's health was restored within weeks."
  • Rebecca, e-commerce entrepreneur: "My team and I were proactive, using the disavow tool even before any real damage occurred. It's a staple in our SEO toolkit now."

Tips and Advice from Seasoned Users:

  • Always maintain a backup of your previous disavow file before updating.
  • Regularly check your backlinks; monthly reviews can help in the early detection of suspicious links.

Regular Auditing of Disavow Files

Even after successfully using the disavow tool, the job isn't over. Regular audits ensure you're up-to-date with your site's backlink health.

Why Revisit Disavow Files?

  • Dynamic Nature of the Web: Sites change, and what was once a low-quality website may evolve into a credible resource.
  • Avoiding Over-Disavowal: Continually expanding your disavow file without periodic review can lead to unintentionally disavowing beneficial links.

Re-Avowing Links: If during an audit, you find a domain or link that is no longer harmful or has significantly improved its quality, you can remove it from the disavow file, essentially 're-avowing' it.

Expert Opinions and Interviews

Hearing from the leaders in the field can provide clarity and direction.

Insights on Disavowal's Evolution:

Dr. Amy Lang, SEO Consultant: "The disavow tool has shifted from being a mere damage control instrument to a proactive defense mechanism. It’s exciting to see where it'll head next with AI integration."

Tips from Industry Leaders:

  • Michael Torres, SEO Guru: "The real trick isn't just knowing how to disavow but understanding when to. Sometimes, it's more beneficial to reach out for manual link removal than to blanket-disavow."
  • Raj Singh, Digital Marketing Expert: "Always pair your disavow efforts with strong, organic link-building strategies. One is about defense; the other, growth."


In the ever-evolving landscape of digital marketing, the integrity of a website's backlink profile stands as a paramount cornerstone. As we've journeyed through the multifaceted aspects of disavowing links, the recurring theme has been the imperative need for vigilant backlink management.

The rise of negative SEO attacks and the proliferation of toxic backlinks in today's web ecosystem underscore the necessity of tools like Google's Disavow. But beyond tools and techniques, it's the mindset of proactive defense and continuous monitoring that truly shields a site from potential harm.

Moreover, as echoed by expert opinions and real-world testimonials, the art of mastering backlink management extends beyond mere disavowal. It's about striking a balance—defending against harmful links while fostering organic, high-quality backlink growth.

In conclusion, the world of SEO is as much about building robust defenses as it is about strategic growth. As webmasters and digital marketers, it's our onus to stay ahead, remain informed, and always prioritize the genuine value we offer to our users.

Disavow and How to Create and Submit a Disavow File FAQs